Material conditions required for working:
- Arranging workplaces
As for the objective conditions of work it is important to mention that, from the aspect of local activity, general requirements related to workplaces have to be filled (clothing, washing, state of air, heating, airing, lighting, noise exemption, order, cleanliness, traffic safety, etc).
- Arranging suitable working environment
A clean and tidy environment is a need for everyone. A clean environment is essential to do the job, without accidents, as workers can easily slip on the floor that is wet by dirt and can suffer a serious accident. Creating an orderly system of workplaces begins with arranging the furnishings and indicating the traffic roads. It is required to avoid congestion. At crowded, anarchic workplaces, where lots of unnecessary objects hinder employees in their work, accidents may happen more easily. Roads assigned for safe traffic and work are not allowed to be used for other purposes even temporarily. They always have to be left without obstacles. Network and data transmission cables of business machines, computers and other technical appliances should not be laid on the floor as they have the danger of disintegration. Certain materials, which become useless at a given place and time, arise in every field of life, even during production. These materials are called waste. Waste materials and garbage produced in workplaces have to be collected regularly, continuosly and on the spot, if necessary. Organic, inorganic, harmless and dangerous waste are produced in general. Waste should be stored in the assigned place until they are completely removed. Within organic and inorganic waste the hazardous ones require special treatment. Dangerous waste is a material left after production, or any other activity. The active decomposition product of which causes harmful, direct or indirect, immediate or delayed effect on human life, on health and on the living world. Dangerous waste materials can be poisonous, contagious, can cause corrosion, can be inflammable and explosive. They can be derived from communities of consumption or they can be radioactive. More significant types of dangerous wastes are solvent wastes, acidic or alkaline solutions in the form of by-products, chemical remains, waste oils. Keeping the personal hygiene at workplaces serves the protection of workers. For the sake of this, eating and smoking at dirty workplaces is not allowed, separate rooms should be assigned for that. It is essential to provide the possibility for handwashing with soap before eating and smoking. It is also important to provide social rooms.
- Meeting general requirements related to labour process, technologies, procedures and the choice of materials to be used.
In order to reach objects that are placed high (watering flowers, cupboard shelves, etc.) it is not allowed to use a chair, table, or a device that is not made for this purpose but an appropriate ladder, podium, etc. It is forbidden to operate computers, electric typewriters, refrigerators, coffee-makers or any other electrical appliances having power-circuit connections which protect against electric shock, without using plugs that lack a safety cable. Otherwise, if failure or short-circuit occurs in the electric part of the appliance, it may cause electric shock. Cables of telephones and electric appliances should be laid safely outside traffic roads and rooms for movement, in order not to get caught or stumble over them. It is not allowed to store chemicals or any other materials which are not served for eating in the refrigerator, as it is intended for food storage. Their packaging, leaking, scattering, etc. can contaminate or infect foods. In order to defend non-smokers, it is required to provide smoking rooms, premises or other organizational arrangements at each workplace.
- Usage of personal safety devices:
Workers should be provided with safety clothing and special safety devices (e.g. rubber gloves, face masks, safety goggles, etc.) if there are, or may arise, harmful effects for their health and soundness at workplaces, or if it is specified from the aspect of public health. This refers to those who stay there temporarily, to students, to the members of families and to all employees. The personal safety device serves for personal use and it cannot be redeemed in cash. Failures caused by careless usage of safety devices have to be paid by the employees. It is allowed to procure a personal safety device only with a work protection label. During their employment new entrants are informed by their direct managers about the effects against which the use of personal safety devices protect them. It is compulsory to use the allocated personal safety device for the work assigned. Workers who, in spite of warning, do not use a personal safety device are to be prohibited from working and they cannot get paid for the time lost. The employer takes care of cleaning, washing, sterilizing and repairing of personal safety devices. There is not a definite time assigned for the use of personal safety clothes or devices; exchanged, worn-out and irreparable safety clothes have to be surrended as a waste product.
- Supplying cleaning agents and safety ointments:
It is required to provide soap, a nail-brush and paper towels or a towel for every employee on a monthly basis with exchanges, if necessary. According to needs, it is required to provide paper napkins in restaurants and in local diners, as well as toilet paper in social rooms. In case of work which entails increased contamination, it is necessary to supply industrial hand-wash detergents or hand-wash cream to persons, in proper quantities. If due to the type of work gauntlets cannot be worn and there is the danger of skin-drying, it is necessary to provide safety ointment or safety coating. Only skin protective products that have been granted by the National Public Health and Medical Office Service can be used at workplaces.
- Fulfillment of technical, operational, handling and maintenance instructions:
Descriptions of different appliances and operations have to include safety warnings. It is required to clearly emphasize operations of such particular appliances that imply danger. Appliances can only be purchased with the description of their usage and maintenance. Dangerous appliances have to be supervised from time to time (e.g. examining the standardization of electric appliances and their defence against electric shock).